Timber Species - Hardwood

  Certification Schemes Available Stock Thicknesses
Ash - American White FSC® 25mm, 32mm, 38mm, 50mm, 63mm, 75mm, 100mm
Latin Name: Fraxinus Spp
Description:

The sapwood is almost white in colour and the heartwood varies from light brown to greyish - brown to pale yellow streaked with brown. The wood is generally straight grained with a coarse uniform texture.

Density: approx 670 kg/m³ but may vary by 20% or more.
Durability Not durable
Moisture Movement: Medium
Working Properties:

Machines well, is good in nailing, screwing and gluing. Can be stained and polished to a good finish.

Uses:

Furniture, flooring, doors, internal mouldings and joinery. Tool handles and sports goods.

Stock Guide:

Kiln dried, FAS, Square edged. Sawn thicknesses of 25mm, 32mm, 38mm, 50mm, 63mm, 75mm and 100mm. 25mm, 32mm, 38mm and 50mm x 225mm + wider. 115x25mm and 150x25mm pulled to width strips.

Ash - Thermally modified FSC® 25mm, 38mm, 50mm
Latin Name: Fraxinus Spp
Description:

The timber has been heated in an oxygen free environment to a temperature of between 210-230 deg c to permanently alter the chemical and physical properties of the wood. The result of these changes is to produce a timber which has improved dimensional stability and improved resistance to decay meaning timbers like ash, which are normally restricted to internal applications, can now be used externally. The modification process also has the affect of altering the colour of the timber to a dark brown colour.

Density:
Durability Durable
Moisture Movement: Small
Working Properties:

Machines well to a good finish but does require cutting blades to be sharp.

Uses:

Garden furniture, external cladding, decking and flooring.

Stock Guide:

Sawn thicknesses of 25mm, 38mm and 50mm only.

Balau - Yellow Verified Legal 38mm & 300mm
Latin Name: Shorea Spp
Description:

The timber is a yellowish-brown when first machined darkening to a reddish-brown colour. Sapwood is generally very limited but is a pale colour when present. The timber has interlocked grain and a coarse but even texture. Small worm holes are a typical characteristic of this timber.

Density: approx 980 kg/m³ but may vary by 20% or more.
Durability Durable/Very Durable
Moisture Movement: Medium
Working Properties:

The timber has a heavy blunting effect on cutters.

It machines to a reasonable finish although the interlocked grain can result in areas of raised grain. The timber has a tendency to split and has an acidic nature which may react with ferrous metals causing blue/black staining.

Uses:

The timber is mainly used for heavy structural work, bridge and wharf construction. Marine and sea defence applications. It is also a commonly used timber for decking.

Stock Guide:

Shipping dry, Standard & Better, Square edged. Sawn sizes of 38x150mm and 300x300mm only.

Beech FSC® / PEFC 25mm, 32mm, 38mm, 50mm, 63mm, 75mm
Latin Name: Fagus sylvatica
Description:

Normally, there is no clear distinction by colour between sapwood and heartwood, the wood being very pale brown or almost white and turning pink to reddish-brown under the influence of and dependant upon the degree of a steaming treatment. The timber can show an irregular dark reddish coloured heart, caused it is believed, by the effect of severe frosts.

Density: 720 kg/m³
Durability Not durable
Moisture Movement: Large
Working Properties:

On the whole beech works fairly readily and is capable of a good smooth surface. Beech turns well, takes glue readily and takes stains and polish satisfactorily.

Uses:

Beech has many uses from furniture, both solid and laminate from veneer, to shoe heels, toys, tool handles and flooring. Beech is also used extensively for kitchen utensils, chopping boards and worktops due to it's nature of not tainting any food it comes in contact with.

Stock Guide:

Kiln dried, Square edged, Sawn thicknesses of 25mm, 32mm, 38mm, 50mm and limited volumes of 63mm and 75mm all in both steamed and unsteamed beech.

Cherry – American FSC® 25mm, 32mm, 38mm, 50mm
Latin Name: Prunus Serotina
Description:

The heartwood of cherry varies from rich red to reddish brown and will darken on exposure to light. In contrast the sapwood is creamy white. The wood has a fine uniform straight grain, smooth texture and may naturally contain brown pith flecks and small gum pockets.

Density: approx 580 kg/m³
Durability Moderately durable
Moisture Movement: Medium
Working Properties:

The wood is easy to machine, nails and glues well and when sanded, stained and polished, it produces an excellent smooth finish.

Uses:

Furniture, cabinet making, flooring, doors, internal mouldings and panelling.

Stock Guide:

Kiln dried, FAS, Square edged. Sawn thicknesses of 25mm, 32mm, 38mm and 50mm

Cumaru FSC® 25mm, 32mm, 38mm, 50mm, 75mm, 100mm
Latin Name: Dipteryx spp.
Description:

The heartwood is reddish-brown with light yellowish-brown or purplish streaks when freshly cut, turn to a variegated reddish and yellowish-brown after drying, but on exposure to light assuming a uniform yellowish-brown or light brown colour. The wood has a waxy or oily feel, a fine texture and irregular and often interlocked grain. It is an extemely hard and heavy wood.

Density: 1070 kg/m³
Durability Very durable
Moisture Movement: Reported to be stable
Working Properties:

Cumaru is rather difficult to work but with sharp tools it saws and bores cleanly and when severely interlocked grain is absent, planes and finishes to a smooth surface. It takes a high polish but glues poorly.

Uses:

Heavy structural uses, cladding and decking.

Stock Guide:

Air Dried, FAS, Square edged, Sawn dimension stock of 25x150mm, 32x150mm, 38x150mm, 50x150mm, 50x225mm, 75x225mm and 100x225mm.

Garapa FSC® 25mm
Latin Name: Apuleia Leiocarpa
Description:

The sapwood is whitish in colour while the heartwood varies from yellow to yellow-brown tending to acquire a reddish to coppery hue on exposure. The timber has a straight grain sometimes interlocked and a fine uniform texture.

Density: approx 800 – 960 kg/m³
Durability Moderately Durable / Durable
Moisture Movement: Medium
Working Properties:

The timber has a heavy blunting affect on cutters due to the high silica content although a smooth finish can be achieved.

Uses:

Decking and external furniture.

Stock Guide:

Kiln dried, Square edged. Sawn 100x25mm and 150x25mm only.

Idigbo 38mm, 63mm, 75mm
Latin Name: Terminalia Ivorensis
Description:

A plain, pale yellow to light brown coloured wood with little distinction between sapwood and heartwood, although the later is somewhat darker in colour. The grain is straight to slightly irregular and the texture is coarse and uneven.

Density: approx 560 kg/m³ but may vary by 20% or more.
Durability Durable
Moisture Movement: Small
Working Properties:

The timber works easily to a clean finish. Takes glue and fixings well. Stains effectively and reacts well to finishing treatments. It’s acidic nature may cause reaction with ferrous metals.

Uses:

External applications such as windows, doors, conservatories and general purpose joinery.

Stock Guide:

Kiln dried, FAS, Square edged. Sawn thicknesses of 25mm, 38mm, 50mm, 63mm and 75mm.

Ipe FSC® 25mm & 32mm
Latin Name: Tabebuia spp.
Description:

The heartwood is yellowish green when first cut, turning a light to dark brown with lighter or darker streaks.The timber has a fine texture and a low to medium lustre. The timber can have yellow lines on its surface due to a naturally occuring yellow powder found in the pores of the heartwood. The wood is cold to the touch and often appears oily.

Density: 1040 kg/m³
Durability Very durable
Moisture Movement: Medium
Working Properties:

Ipe is moderately difficult to work with a blunting effect on cutting edges. A good finish is usually obtained when planing or moulding. The timber stains and polishes well but pre-boring is required before nailing.

Uses:

Primarily used for decking.

Stock Guide:

Air dried, Square edged 25x150mm and 32x150mm dimension stock only

Iroko FSC® / Verified Legal 25mm, 32mm, 38mm, 50mm, 63mm, 75mm, 100mm
Latin Name: Chlorophora Excelsa, Chlorophora Regia
Description:

When freshly cut or machined the heartwood is yellow in colour but quickly darkening to golden brown on exposure to light. The grain is usually interlocked and the texture rather coarse but even. Large, hard deposits of calcium carbonate are sometimes present in cavities.

Density: approx 660 kg/m³
Durability Durable / Very Durable
Moisture Movement: Small
Working Properties:

Iroko works fairly well with most tools although the presence of calcium deposits can blunt cutting edges. There is a tendency for the grain to lift in areas of interlocked grain. It takes nails and screws well and can be glued satisfactorily.

Uses:

Internal and external joinery, window frames and sills. Boat and ship work. External benches and seats. Laboratory benches and draining boards.

Stock Guide:

Kiln dried, FAS, Square edged. Sawn thicknesses of 25mm, 32mm, 38mm, 50mm, 63mm, 75mm and 100mm.

Maple – American Hard FSC® 25mm, 32mm, 38mm, 50mm, 63mm, 75mm
Latin Name: Acer Saccharum, Acer Nigrum
Description:

The heartwood is light reddish-brown with deeper coloured late-wood bands. The sapwood is creamy white in colour. The timber is straight grained and fine textured.

Density: approx 740 kg/m³
Durability Slightly durable
Moisture Movement: Medium
Working Properties:

The material is rather hard to work. It glues satisfactorily although is difficult to nail and screw. Can be polished and stained to an excellent finish.

Uses:

Furniture, internal mouldings and joinery. Panelling, stairs, kitchen cabinets. Sports goods and specialist floors.

Stock Guide:

Kiln dried, FAS, Square edge. Sawn thicknesses 25mm, 32mm, 38mm, 50mm, 63mm and 75mm. 115x25mm and 150x25mm pulled to width strips.

Massaranduba FSC® 25mm, 32mm, 50mm, 75mm
Latin Name: Manilkara spp
Description:

The heartwood is light red to rose red when freshly cut or machined turning dark reddish brown on exposure. Sapwood is a distinctly contrasting whitish or pale brown. The grain is usually straight but sometimes interlocked and the texture is fine and uniform.

Density: approx 1050 kg/m³
Durability Durable/Very Durable
Moisture Movement: Large
Working Properties:

The timber works moderately easy despite its high density. It machines and finishes to a smooth surface. The timber does suffer from severe checking, end splits and shrinkage as it dries out.

Uses:

Bridge construction, Decking and heavy structural use.

Stock Guide:

Air Dried, FAS, Square edged. Sawn thicknesses of 25mm, 32mm, 50mm and 75mm.

Meranti - Dark Red PEFC / MTCS 19mm, 25mm, 32mm, 38mm, 50mm, 63mm, 75mm, 100mm
Latin Name: Shorea spp
Description:

The sapwood is lighter in colour and distinct from the heartwood which is red-brown darkening to a dark red. Grey-coloured narrow streaks are often present on longitudinal surfaces. The texture is coarse but even and the grain is interlocked and wavy.

Density: approx 710 kg/m³ but may vary by 20% or more.
Durability Moderately Durable/Durable.
Moisture Movement: Small
Working Properties:

The timber works well and is capable of a good smooth surface. It can be glued, nailed and screwed satisfactorily and stained and polished quite well.

Uses:

Internal joinery, furniture framing, external joinery (with additional coatings/preservative).

Stock Guide:

Kiln Dried, Select & Better, Square edged. Sawn thicknesses of 19mm, 25mm, 32mm 38mm, 50mm, 63mm, 75mm and 100mm.

Oak – American Red 38mm, 50mm
Latin Name: Quercus spp
Description:

The sapwood of red oak is white to light brown and the heartwood is a pinkish reddish brown. The wood is mostly straight grained with a coarse texture. It generally has slightly less pronounced figure than the white oak.

Density: approx 790 kg/m³
Durability Slightly Durable
Moisture Movement: Medium
Working Properties:

Red oak machines well, nailing and screwing is good although pre-boring is recommended and it can be stained and polished to a good finish.

Uses:

Internal joinery, mouldings and doors, flooring, panelling and kitchen cabinets.

Stock Guide:

Kiln Dried, FAS, Square edged. Sawn thicknesses of 38mm and 50mm.

Oak – American White FSC® 25mm, 32mm, 38mm, 50mm, 63mm, 75mm
Latin Name: Quercus spp
Description:

White oak is similar in appearance to European Oak although more variable in colour. The sapwood is light in colour and the heartwood is light to dark brown sometimes with a pinkish tint. White oak is mostly straight grained with a coarse to medium texture and more figure than the red oak.

Density: approx 770 kg/m³
Durability Moderately Durable/Durable.
Moisture Movement: Medium
Working Properties:

White oak machines, nails and screws well. Its acidic nature may react with ferrous metals. It can be stained and polished to a good finish.

Uses:

Furniture, flooring, internal joinery, mouldings, panelling, doors, kitchen cabinets.

Stock Guide:

Kiln Dried, FAS and rustic, Square edged. Sawn thicknesses of 25mm, 32mm, 38mm, 50mm, 63mm and 75mm. 25mm, 32mm, 38mm and 50mm x 225mm + wider. 76x25mm, 102x25mm, 127x25mm, 152x25mm 178x25mm, 203x25mm Parallel strips. 152x25mm, 203x25mm rustic parallel strips.


Oak – European FSC® 26mm, 32mm, 40mm, 50mm, 65mm, 80mm, 100mm
Latin Name: Quercus spp
Description:

The sapwood is lighter in colour than the heartwood which is yellowish brown. Quarter sawn surfaces show a distinct silver-grain figure due to the broad rays. Generally straight grained with a coarse texture. Conditions of growth greatly govern the exact character of the wood and these conditions vary considerably between the various countries that export oak.

Density: approx 720 kg/m³ but can vary by 20% or more
Durability Durable
Moisture Movement: Medium
Working Properties:

In general oak planes and moulds well. It can be stained, polished, waxed and glued satisfactorily. It takes screws and nails well, except near edges where pre-boring is required. It takes liming treatment well. Its acidic nature may cause reaction with ferrous metals.

Uses:

Internal and external joinery, furniture, panelling, mouldings, cabinet work and flooring. Fresh sawn oak is also used in external cladding, beams, construction, sleepers and fencing.

Stock Guide:

Kiln Dried, Square edged, Sawn thicknesses 26mm, 32mm, 40mm, 50mm, 65mm, 80mm and 100mm. Also 100x65mm and 100x80mm dimension stock 1.0m - 2.0m long only.

Oak – French PEFC 40mm, 65mm, 80mm, 100mm, 120mm, 150mm
Latin Name: Quercus spp
Description:

The sapwood is lighter in colour than the heartwood which is yellowish brown. Quarter sawn surfaces show a distinct silver-grain figure due to the broad rays. Generally straight grained with a coarse texture. Conditions of growth greatly govern the exact character of the wood and these conditions vary considerably between the various countries that export oak.

Density: approx 720 kg/m³ but can vary by 20% or more.
Durability Durable
Moisture Movement: Medium
Working Properties:

In general oak planes and moulds well. It can be stained, polished, waxed and glued satisfactorily. It takes screws and nails well, except near edges where pre-boring is required. It takes liming treatment well. Its acidic nature may cause reaction with ferrous metals.

Uses:

Internal and external joinery, furniture, panelling, mouldings, cabinet work and flooring. Fresh sawn oak is also used in external cladding, beams, construction, sleepers and fencing.

Stock Guide:

Kiln Dried, Square edged, Sawn thicknesses 40mm, 65mm and 80mm. Air Dried, Sawn thicknesses 100mm, 120mm and 150mm.

Opepe FSC® 38mm, 50mm, 75mm, 100mm, 150mm, 200mm
Latin Name: Nauclea diderrichii
Description:

The heartwood is a distinctive uniform golden-yellow or orange-brown colour, clearly differentiated from the pinkish yellow sapwood. The texture is coarse and the grain is frequently interlocked. Opepe is an exceptionally strong timber, very durable and has high resistance to marine borers.

Density: 750 kg/m³
Durability Very durable
Moisture Movement: Small
Working Properties:

The timber works with moderate ease in most hand and machine operations and has a reasonably small dulling effect on tool edges.

Uses:

Piling and decking in wharves and docks and general construction.

Stock Guide:

Shipping dry. Sawn sections of 150x38mm, 38x225mm, 50x150mm, 50x225mm, 50x300mm, 75x150mm, 75x225mm, 75x300mm, 100x255mm, 100x300mm, 150x150mm, 150x300mm and 200x200mm.

Sapele FSC® / Verified Legal 25mm, 32mm, 38mm, 50mm, 63mm, 75mm, 100mm
Latin Name: Entandrophragma cylindricum
Description:

The sapwood is pale yellow or whitish, the heartwood pinkish when freshly cut, darkening to typical mahogany colour of reddish-brown. Sapele is characterised by a marked and regular stripe, particularly pronounced on quarter-sawn surfaces. The grain is interlocked with a close texture.

Density: approx 640 kg/m³
Durability Moderately durable
Moisture Movement: Medium
Working Properties:

Sapele works fairly well but the interlocked grain is often troublesome. It takes screws and nails well, glues satisfactorily, stains readily and takes an excellent polish.

Uses:

Furniture, cabinet making, panelling, flooring and general joinery.

Stock Guide:

Kiln Dried, FAS, Square edged, Sawn thicknesses 25mm, 32mm, 38mm, 50mm, 63mm, 75mm and 100mm. 32x400mm + wider boards.

Tulipwood - Thermally modified FSC® 25mm, 38mm, 50mm
Latin Name: Liriodendron tulipifera
Description:

The timber has been heated in an oxygen free environment to a temperature of between 210-230 deg c to permanently alter the chemical and physical properties of the wood. The result of these changes is to produce a timber which has improved dimensional stability and improved resistance to decay meaning timbers like tulipwood, which are normally restricted to internal applications, can now be used externally. The modification process also has the affect of altering the colour of the timber to a dark brown colour.

Density:
Durability Durable
Moisture Movement: Small
Working Properties:

Machines well to a good finish but does require cutting blades to be sharp.

Uses:

Cladding and garden furniture are the main uses for this modified timber.

Stock Guide:

Sawn thicknesses of 25mm, 38mm and 50mm only

Tulipwood – American FSC® 25mm, 32mm, 38mm, 50mm, 63mm, 75mm, 100mm
Latin Name: Liriodendron tulipifera
Description:

The sapwood is creamy white and the heartwood varies from pale yellowish brown to olive green sometimes with purple/blue streaks. The wood has a medium to fine texture and is straight grained.

Density: approx 510 kg/m³
Durability Slightly durable
Moisture Movement: Medium
Working Properties:

The timber is easy to work with and finishes to a fine smooth surface. Takes nails, screws and glue well. Can be stained, polished or painted.

Uses:

Internal joinery, doors, panelling, mouldings, trims, carving and turning

Stock Guide:

Kiln Dried, FAS, Square edged, Sawn thicknesses 25mm, 32mm, 38mm, 50mm, 63mm, 75mm and 100mm.

Utile FSC®/Verified Legal 25mm, 32mm, 38mm, 50mm, 63mm, 75mm
Latin Name: Entandrophragma utile
Description:

The heartwood of utile is pale pink when freshly cut, darkening on exposure to reddish-brown. It closely resembles sapele both in appearance and properties but is more open in texture. The grain is interlocked and produces a broad ribbon stripe, often wider and more irregular than that of sapele.

Density: approx 660 kg/m³
Durability Moderately durable/Durable
Moisture Movement: Medium
Working Properties:

Utile works rather well but with a slight blunting effect on cutting edges. Takes stain and glue well and polishes well.

Uses:

Furniture, cabinet making, panelling, flooring and general joinery.

Stock Guide:

Kiln Dried, FAS, Square edged, Sawn thicknesses 25mm, 32mm, 38mm, 50mm, 63mm and 75mm

Walnut – American Black 25mm, 32mm, 38mm, 50mm, 63mm, 75mm
Latin Name: Juglans Nigra
Description:

The sapwood of walnut is creamy white, while the heartwood varies in colour from a light brown through to dark chocolate brown or sometimes a purplish black. It has a fine even texture with a coarse grain. Walnut tends to have a higher volume of knots and defects in comparison with other hardwoods.

Density: approx 660 kg/m³
Durability Moderately durable
Moisture Movement: Small/Medium
Working Properties:

Walnut works easily and nails, screws and glues well. It can be stained well and polished to an exceptional finish.

Uses:

Internal joinery, furniture, cabinet making, flooring, panelling. Often used in contrast to lighter coloured timbers.

Stock Guide:

Kiln Dried, FAS, Square edged, Sawn thicknesses 25mm, 32mm, 38mm, 50mm, 63mm and 75mm. 150x25mm pulled to width strips. 25x225mm + wider.